As the density of human and domestic animal populations increases, the threat of localized epidemics and global pandemics grows. Although effective vaccines have been developed for a number of threatening pathogens, manufacturing and disseminating vaccines in the face of a rapidly spreading epidemic or pandemic remains a formidable challenge. One potentially powerful solution to this problem is the use of transmissible vaccines. Transmissible vaccines are capable of spreading from one individual to another and are currently being developed for a range of infectious diseases. Here we develop and analyze mathematical models that allow us to quantify the benefits of vaccine transmission in the face of an imminent or ongoing epidemic. Our results demonstrate that even a small amount of vaccine transmission can greatly increase the rate at which a naïve host population can be protected against an anticipated epidemic and substantially reduce the size of unanticipated epidemics if vaccination is initiated shortly after pathogen detection. In addition, our results identify key biological properties and implementation practices that maximize the impact of vaccine transmission on infectious disease.
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